Ugc net(NAtional Eligibility Test) for lectureship and jrf (Junior Research Fellowship)
Complete Syllabus for the subject "chemical Sciences"(chemistry)2008
PAPER 1 – SECTION A
1. General information on science and its interface with society to test the candidate’s awareness of science, aptitude of scientific and quantitative reasonsing.
2. COMMON ELEMENTRY COMPUTER SCIENCE ( Applicable to all candidates offering subject areas ).
3. History of development of computers, Mainframe, Mini, Micro’s and Super Computer Systems.
4. General awareness of computer Hardware i..e. CPU and other peripheral devices ( input / output and auxiliary storage devices ).
5. Basic knowledge of computer systems, software and programming languages i.e. Machine language, Assembly language and higher level language.
6. General awareness of popular commercial software packages like LOTUS, DBASE, WORDSTAR, other Scientific application packages.
PAPER 1 – SECTION B
1. Structure and Bonding : Atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of atoms ( L – S coupling ) and the periodic properties of elements ; ionic radii, ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity; concept of hybridization. Molecular orbitals and electronic configuration of homonuclear and heteronucelar diatomic molecules. Shapes of polyatomic molecules; VSEPR, theory. Symmetry elements and point groups for simple molecules. Bond lengths, bond angles, bond order and bond energies. Types of Chemical Bond ( weak and strong ) intermolecular forces, structure of simple ionic and covalent solids, lattice energy.
2. Acids and Bases : Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases, pH and pKa, acid-based concept in non-acqueous media ; HSAB concept. Buffer solution.
3. Redox Reactions : Oxidation numbers, Redox potential, Electrochemical series, Redox indicators.
4. Energetics and Dynamics of Chemical Reactions : Law of conservation of energy, Energy and entheipy of reactions. Entropy, free-energy, relationship between free energy change and equilibrium. Rates of chemical reactions (first-and second-order reactions). Arrhenius equation and concept of transition state. Mechanisms, including SN 1 and SN 2 reactions, electron transfer reactions, catalysis. Coiligative properties of solutions.
5. Aspects of s, p, d, f, Block Elements : General characteristics of each block. Chemical principles involved in extractions and purification of iron, copper, lead, zinc and aluminium. Coordination chemistry; structural aspects, isomerism, octahedral and tetrahedral crystal – field splitting of dorbitals. CFSE, magnetism end colour of transition metal ions. Sandwich compounds, metal carbonyis and metal clusters. Rare gas compounds, non-sicichiometric oxides. Radio activity and transmutation of elements, isotopes and their applications.
6. IUPAC Nomenciature of Simple Organic and Inorganic Compounds.
7. Concept of Chirality : Recognition of symmetry elements and chiral structures; R – S nomenciature, diastereoisomerism in acyclic and cyclic systers; E – Z isomerisms. Conformational analysis of simple cyclic ( chair and boat cyclo hexanes ) and acyclic systems. Interconversion of Fischer, Newman and Sawhorse projections.
8. Common Organic Reactions and Mechanisms : Reactive intermediates, Formation and stability of carbonium ions, carbanians, carbenes, nitrenes, radicals and arynes. Nucleophilic, electrophilic, radical substitution, addition and elimination reactions. Familiar name reactions : Aldol, Perkin, Stobbe, Dieckmann condensations; Holmann, Schmidt, Lossen, Curtius, Backmann and Fries rearrangements; Reimer – Tiemann, Reformatsky and Grignard reactions. Diels – Aider reactions; Clasien rearrangements; Friedeal – Crafts reaftions; Witting reactions; and robinson annulation. Routine functional group transformations and interconversions of simple functionalities. Hydroboration, Oppenaur oxidations; Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Meerwein – Ponndorf – Veriey and Birch reductions.
9. Elementary principles and applications of electronic, vibrational, NMR, EPR and Mass Spectral techniques to simple structural problems.
10. Data Analysis : Types of errors, propagation of errors, accuracy and precision, least-squares analysis, average standard deviation.
Chemical Sciences PAPER II
1. Quantum Chemistry : Planck’s quantum theory, wave – particle duality. Uncertainty Principle, operators and commutation relations; postulates of quantum mechanics and Schrodinger equation; free particle, particle in a box, degeneracym, harmonic oscillator, rigid rotator and the hydrogen atom. Angular momentum, including spin; coupling of angular momenta including spin-orbit coupling.
2. The variation method and perturbation theory : Application to the helium atom, antisymmetry and Exclusion Principle, Siater determinantal wave functions. Terms symbols and spectroscopic states.
3. Born – Oppenheimer approximation, Hydrogen molecule ion. LCAO – MO and VB treatments of the hydrogen molecule; electron density, forces and their role in chemical binding. Hybridisation and valence MO3 of H2O, NH3 and CH4. Hudket pl-electron theory and its applications to ethylene, butadience and benzene. Idea of sell-consistent fields.
4. Group theoretical representations and spectrosconic selection rules for vibrational, electronic, vibronic and Raman spectroscopy. MO treatment of large molecules with symmetry.
5. Spectroscopy : Theoretical treatment of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectroscopy. Principles of magnetic resonance, Mossbauer and photoelectron spectroscopy.
6. Thermodynamics : First law of thermodynamics, relation between Cp and Cv; enthaipies of physical and chemical changes; temperature dependence of enthaipies. Second law of thermodynamics, entropy, Gibbs-Helmoholtz equation. Third law of thermodynamics and calculation of entropy.
7. Chemical Equilibrium : Free energy and entropy of modng, partial molar quantities, Gibbs – Duhern equation. Equilibrium constant, temperature – dependence of equilibrium constant, phase diagram of one – and two – component systems, phase rule.
8. Ideal and Non-ideal eciuiions, Excess functions, activities, concept of hydration number; activities in electrolytic solutions; mean ionic activity coefficient; Debye – Huckel treatment of dilute electrolyte solutions.
9. Electrochemistry : Electrochemical cell reactions, Nernst equation, Electrode Kinetics, electrical doubie layer, electode / electrolyte interface, Batteries, primary and secondary Fuel Cells, corrosion and comosion prevention.
10. Surface Phenomena : Surface tension, adscrption on solids, electrical phenomena at interfaces, including electrokinetic, micelles and reverse micelles; solubilization, micro-emulsions. Application of photoelectron spectroscopy. ESCA and Auger spectroscopy to the study of surfaces.
Chemical Sciences Paper II
11. Statistical Tharomodynamics : Thermodynamic probability and entropy; Maxwell – Boltzmann, Bose – Einstein and Fermi – Dirac statistics. Partition function; rotational translational, vibratioanl and electronic partition functions for diatomic molecules; calculations of thermodynamic functions and equilibrium constants. Theories of specific heat for solids.
12. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics : Postulates and methodologies, linear laws, Gibbs equation, Onsager reciprocal theory.
13. Reaction Kinetics : Methods of determining rate laws. Mechanisms of photochemical, chain and oscillatory reactions. Collision theory of reaction rates; steric factor, treatment of unimolecular reactions. Theory of absolute reaction rates, comparison of results with Eyring and Arrhenius equations, ionic reactions; salt effect. Homogeneous catalysis and Michaelis – Menten kinetics; heteroge – neous catalysis.
14. Fast Reaction : Luminescence and Energy transfer processes. Study of kinetics by stopped flow technique, relazation method, flash photolysis and magnetic resonance method.
15. Macromolecules : Number – average and weight average molecular weights ; determination of molecular weights. Kinetics of polymerization. Stereochemistry and mechanism of polymerization.
16. Solids : Dislocation in solids, Schottky and Frenkel defects, Electrical properties; insulators and semiconductors; superconductors, band theory of solids, Solid-state reactions.
17. Nuclear Chemistry : Radioactive decay and equilibrium. Nuclear reactions ; Q value, cross sections, types of reactions, Chemical effects of nuclear transformations; fission and fusion, fission products and fission yields. Radioactive technique; tracer technique, neutron activation analysis, counting techniques such as G. M. ionization and proportional counter.
18. Chemistry of Non-transition Elements : General discussion on the properties of the non-transition elements; special features of individual elements; synthesis, properties and structure of their halides and oxides, polymorphyism of carbon, phosphorus and sulphur. Synthesis, properties and structure of boranes, carboranes, borazines, silicates carbides, silicones, phosphazenes, sulphur-nitrogen compounds; peroxo compounds of boron, carbon and sulphur; oxy acids of nitrogen, phosphours, sulphur and halogens, interhalogens pseudohalides and noble gas compounds.
19. Chemistry of Transition Elements : Coordination chemistry of transition metal ions ; Stability constants of complexes and their determination; stabilization of unusual oxidation states. Stereochemistry of coordination compounds. Ligandfield theory, splitting of d-orbitals in low-symmetry environments. Jahn – Teller effect; interpretation of electronic spectra including charge transfer spectra ; spectrochemical series, nephelauxetic series Magnetism; Dia-, para-, ferro- and antiferromagnetism, quenching of orbital angular moment, spinorbit copling, inorganic reaction mechanisms; substitution reactions, trans effect and electron transfer reactions, photochemical reaction of chromium and ruthenium complexes. Fluxional molecules iso-and heteropolyacids ; metal clusters. Spin crossover in coordination compounds.